Written by;
Saad Ahmed

The Kaghan valley as we know of it may not stand shoulder to shoulder to the beauty and grandeur of Skardu and Gilgit, but its lakes and pastures that still remain hidden from the eye of the camera, are no less than a heaven on earth. Not many who might just have been able to reach these places would most certainly speak of the criminal negligence of our tourism department for there is not a single snap shot of these hidden places available anywhere- places beautiful enough to leave one speechless at first sight.
. 28th of June, I reached Naran in an attempt to relish the magnificence of three assorted lakes namely lake Dodipit, lake Lulusar, lake Saral located some 40kms from Naran down the Kaghan road.  Supplies enough for a week, my gear comprising of dried meat, beans, food supplements, tea, sugar, a small pot and a stove, a water proof tent, rain coat, warm clothing and sleeping bag, complete and as trustable as it always had been.

Started off from Islamabad in the morning at 6 and commuting through local transport, I reached Naran at 4 in the evening amidst slight drizzle.
Kaghan valley is also engulfed by the newly born hindukush range which stretches all the way up to north to meet the other two giants, Karakorum and Himalayas.Great continental ice sheet covered much of the temperate latitudes. The warmer  climate that followed caused the ice sheets to retreat. The features of highland and lowland glaciations are more than evident all across the valley. Boulders of the size of small truck can be found lying near the base of the mountains, brought only by a travelling and retreating glacier.

The infamous Saif-ul-malook is also a glacial lake formed by the rise in temperatures and melting glaciers. Kaghan valley presents an ideal opportunity for the students of geography to witness the effects of lowland and highland glaciations, the glacial lakes and their impact on human lives.

To help myself with the long journey ahead, I decided to go as far possible as the daylight would allow reaching the famous mountain resorts within 4 days.I quickly made friends with the commuters, who helped me locate a shortcut to Lalazar, a rather difficult and steep one. It was my first strong hike up after a year and was an excruciatingly tough one, for I also had my lunch and the load on my back was also a heavy one. It took me 2 hours for an otherwise short hike. I reached the top at around seven in the evening.  Put on my jacket as the air was getting colder and the sun had already begun to set in the west. Had few cups of “dodhpatti” (milk tea) from one of the two or three hotels that served the tourist and set off to locate a campsite, which itself, a difficult process and require much care. The campsite has  to have three basic requirements other than being at a safer place. Care must be taken that the site must not be in the path of water in case of heavy rains or in an area of possible land sliding. While as for the comfort level, it’s certainly more convenient that the ground is grassy and free of stones n pebbles. Soon night stepped in quietly but surely. The air smelt of pine and the ground was carpeted with the needles of twisted and wizened trees, their exposed roots, acting as a formidable trap for the unweary. After unloading and closely inspecting the area, I decided to hit the sack. It did not take me too long to realise that the gear i had was not even  a substitute to what i needed. Thus i had to abandon the plan and wait for guides to arrive with better accessories before starting my week long expedition through nights..




Written by: Ushba Khan

A daring dash through the adventurous landmarks.

Few cities contain a spectacular National Park or a broad range of adventurous activities that take full advantage of attracting people. Accentuating this natural majesty is Capetonians’s creative flair with design and color from fluorescent facades to synchronous Afro-chic décor of its guest houses and restaurants which turns Cape Town into one handsome metropolis.

South Africa’s mother city, Cape Town, with its cloud-draped Table Mountain, golden beaches and bountiful vineyards captures people’s hearts.

The star attraction is the Table Mountain. To millions of people who have climbed in the cableway to its 1088 m peak, it is the ultimate viewpoint over the city. If you want to get energetic, Cape Town’s wind-whipped waves and Table Mountain is a nirvana for sport enthusiast, with operators aligned without having experienced adrenaline rushes like surfing and rock climbing.

On my visit to Cape Town, I was craving for adventure when my guide advised me to climb the famous icon of the city, ‘The Devil’s Peak’. The time I climbed, the clouds rolled over the peak covering everything in a fine, wet, moist atmosphere, even though it was sunny in the rest of Cape Town. The weather forecasters predicted sunny skies, so I was in a pant, t-shirt and my hi-Tec v-lite total terrain lace (joggers).

Devil’s peak is a site of great beauty and tragedy. In 1971, an aircraft crashed into the peak, killing 11 on board. The thunderous bam was heard throughout the city. If you look closely, the scars in the ground can still be seen. I literally had goosebumps after glancing at the wounded ground.

However, thrill lies in hiking. One has to cross two huge ‘Lion heads’ (picture-perfect mountain in Cape town). Then, the small section of chains takes you through craggier scale faces to finally the rocky playground which makes your mouth drop.

After reaching my desired destination, I encountered eland, wildebeest, zebra and indigenous animals including porcupine, small grey mongoose and a pair of Himalayan Tahr (a goat that occurs to be seen naturally in mountainous regions of South Africa). It was a picture-postcard view; the skyline was observed from left to right, the spire of devil’s peak, flat mesa of Table Mountain, dome of Lion’s Head, all stood in front, in short, a 360-degree view of Cape Peninsula from approximately 1000m above the coastline made me eyes dissolve in the beauty.

The sky was as pure as snow, the view was stupendous, and the ‘Cape Floral Kingdom’ inclusive of fynbos (a unique plant found only in Cape Town) was alluring. I stood on the edge of the Devil’s Peak and captured a selfie to save it as a memoir.

After this dangerously exciting hike tour, I paraglided and went for a ‘shark-cage dive’, yes, the well of death surrounded with sharks. Luckily, I stepped out alive.

I travelled around the city and came across courts of golf, yoga and sports of pampering at the spa. The scrumptious food in one of the famous restaurant of Cape Town, pleased my taste buds, and provoked me to crave for more.

Cape Town is a multi-cultural city, where respect for different ways of living is ingrained. I will always treasure the time spent in Cape Town since the city allowed me to fulfil my dream and become a daredevil. I have posted all the pictures of the tour in my scrap book so that a broad smile dodges across my lips whenever I look back at the memories.

The Language of Advertising Claims

by Jeffrey Schrank

In the essay that follows, Jeffrey Schrank gives a list of the techniques advertisers employ to make claims for their products. Written by a teacher, this selection should serve as a tool: its classification of advertisers’ promises and claims can be used to analyze and evaluate the fairness of the language in many ads. As you read it, consider additional ad claims that fit within each of Schrank’s categories.

Students, and many teachers, are notorious believers in their immunity to advertising. These naive inhabitants of consumerland believe that advertising is childish, dumb, a bunch of lies, and influences only the vast hordes of the less sophisticated. Their own purchases are made purely on the basis of value and desire, with advertising playing only a minor supporting role. They know about Vance Packard and his “hidden persuaders” and the adwriter’s psychosell and bag of persuasive magic. They are not impressed.

Advertisers know better. Although few people admit to being greatly influenced by ads, surveys and sales figures show that a well-designed advertising campaign has dramatic effects. A logical conclusion is that advertising works below the level of conscious awareness and it works even on those who claim immunity to its message. Ads are designed to have an effect while being laughed at, belittled, and all but ignored.

A person unaware of advertising’s claim on him or her is precisely the one most defenseless against the adwriter’s attack. Advertisers delight in an audience which believes ads to be harmless nonsense, for such an audience is rendered defenseless by its belief that there is no attack taking place. The purpose of a classroom study of advertising is to raise the level of awareness about the persuasive techniques used in ads. One way to do this is to analyze ads in microscopic detail. Ads can be studied to detect their psychological hooks, they can be used to gauge values and hidden desires of the common person, they can be studied for their use of symbols, color, and imagery. But perhaps the simplest and most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language of the advertising claim. The “claim” is the verbal or print part of an ad that makes some claim of superiority for the product being advertised. After studying claims, students should be able to recognize those that are misleading and accept as useful information those that are true. A few of these claims are downright lies, some are honest statements about a truly superior product, but most fit into the category of neither bold lies nor helpful consumer information. They balance on the narrow line between truth and falsehood by a careful choice of words.

The reason so many ad claims fall into this category of pseudo-information is that they are applied to parity products, products in which all or most of the brands available are nearly identical. Since no one superior product exists, advertising is used to create the illusion of superiority. The largest advertising budgets are devoted to parity products such as gasoline, cigarettes, beer and soft drinks, soaps, and various headache and cold remedies.

The first rule of parity involves the Alice in Wonderlandish use of the words “better” and “best.” In parity claims, “better” means “best” and “best” means “equal to.” If all the brands are identical, they must all be equally good, the legal minds have decided. So “best” means that the product is as good as the other superior products in its category. When Bing Crosby declares Minute Maid Orange Juice “the best there is” he means it is as good as the other orange juices you can buy.

The word “better” has been legally interpreted to be a comparative and therefore becomes a clear claim of superiority. Bing could not have said that Minute Maid is “better than any other orange juice.” “Better” is a claim of superiority. The only time “better” can be used is when a product does indeed have superiority over other products in its category or when the better is used to compare the product with something other than competing brands. An orange juice could therefore claim to be “better than a vitamin pill,” or even “the better breakfast drink.”

The second rule of advertising claims is simply that if any product is truly superior, the ad will say so very clearly and will offer some kind of convincing evidence of the superiority. If an ad hedges the least bit about a product’s advantage over the competition you can strongly suspect it is not superior–may be equal to but not better. You will never hear a gasoline company say “we will give you four miles per gallon more in your care than any other brand.” They would love to make such a claim, but it would not be true. Gasoline is a parity product, and, in spite of some very clever and deceptive ads of a few years ago, no one has yet claimed one brand of gasoline better than any other brand.

To create the necessary illusion of superiority, advertisers usually resort to one or more of the following ten basic techniques. Each is common and easy to identify.


A weasel word is a modifier that practically negates the claim that follows. The expression “weasel word” is aptly named after the egg-eating habits of weasels. A weasel will suck out the inside of an egg, leaving it appear intact to the casual observer. Upon examination, the egg is discovered to be hollow. Words or claims that appear substantial upon first look but disintegrate into hollow meaninglessness on analysis are weasels. Commonly used weasel words include “helps” (the champion weasel); “like” (used in a comparative sense); “virtual” or “virtually”; “acts” or “works”; “can be”; “up to”; “as much as”; “refreshes”; “comforts”; “tackles”; “fights”; “come on”; “the feel of”; “the look of”; “looks like”; “fortified”; “enriched”; and “strengthened.”

Samples of Weasel Claims

Helps control dandruff symptoms with regular use.” The weasels include “helps control,” and possibly even “symptoms” and “regular use.” The claim is not “stops dandruff.”

“Leaves dishes virtually spotless.” We have seen so many ad claims that we have learned to tune out weasels. You are supposed to think “spotless,” rather than “virtually” spotless.

“Only half the price of many color sets.” “Many” is the weasel. The claim is supposed to give the impression that the set is inexpensive.

“Tests confirm one mouthwash best against mouth odor.”

“Hot Nestlés cocoa is the very best.” Remember the “best” and “better” routine.

“Listerine fights bad breath.” “Fights,” not “stops.”

“Lots of things have changed, but Hershey’s goodness hasn’t.” This claim does not say that Hershey’s chocolate hasn’t changed.

“Bacos, the crispy garnish that tastes just like its name.”


The unfinished claim is one in which the ad claims the product is better, or has more of something, but does not finish the comparison.

Samples of Unfinished Claims

“Magnavox gives you more.” More what?

“Anacin: Twice as much of the pain reliever doctors recommend most.” This claim fits in a number of categories but it does not say twice as much of what pain reliever.

“Supergloss does it with more color, more shine, more sizzle, more!”

“Coffee-mate gives coffee more body, more flavor.” Also note that “body” and “flavor” are weasels.

“You can be sure if it’s Westinghouse.” Sure of what?

“Scott makes it better for you.”

“Ford LTD–700% quieter.”

When the FTC asked Ford to substantiate this claim, Ford revealed that they meant the inside of the Ford was 700% quieter than the outside.


This kind of claim states that there is nothing else quite like the product being advertised. For example, if Schlitz would add pink food coloring to its beer they could say, “There’s nothing like new pink Schlitz.” The uniqueness claim is supposed to be interpreted by readers as a claim to superiority.

Samples of the “We’re Different and Unique” Claim

“There’s no other mascara like it.”

“Only Doral has this unique filter system.”

“Cougar is like nobody else’s car.”

“Either way, liquid or spray, there’s nothing else like it.”

“If it doesn’t say Goodyear, it can’t be polyglas.” “Polyglas” is a trade name copyrighted by Goodyear. Goodrich or Firestone could make a tire exactly identical to the Goodyear one and yet couldn’t call it “polyglas”–a name for fiberglass belts.

“Only Zenith has chromacolor.” Same as the “polyglas” gambit. Admiral has solarcolor and RCA has accucolor.


“Water is wet” claims say something about the product that is true for any brand in that product category, (for example, “Schrank’s water is really wet.”) The claim is usually a statement of fact, but not a real advantage over the competition.

Samples of the “Water is Wet” Claim

“Mobil: the Detergent Gasoline.” Any gasoline acts as a cleaning agent.

“Great Lash greatly increases the diameter of every lash.”

“Rheingold, the natural beer.” Made from grains and water as are other beers.

“SKIN smells differently on everyone.” As do many perfumes.


This is the kind of claim to which the careful reader will react by saying “So What?” A claim is made which is true but which gives no real advantage to the product. This is similar to the “water is wet” claim except that it claims an advantage which is not shared by most of the other brands in the product category.

Samples of the “So What” Claim

“Geritol has more than twice the iron of ordinary supplements.” But is twice as much beneficial to the body?

“Campbell’s gives you tasty pieces of chicken and not one but two chicken stocks.” Does the presence of two stocks improve the taste?

“Strong enough for a man but made for a woman.” This deodorant claims says only that the product is aimed at the female market.


The vague claim is simply not clear. This category often overlaps with others. The key to the vague claim is the use of words that are colorful but meaningless, as well as the use of subjective and emotional opinions that defy verification. Most contain weasels.

Samples of the Vague Claim

“Lips have never looked so luscious.” Can you imagine trying to either prove or disprove such a claim?

“Lipsavers are fun–they taste good, smell good and feel good.”

“Its deep rich lather makes hair feel good again.”

“For skin like peaches and cream.”

“The end of meatloaf boredom.”

“Take a bite and you’ll think you’re eating on the Champs Elysées.”

“Winston tastes good like a cigarette should.”

“The perfect little portable for all around viewing with all the features of higher priced sets.”

“Fleishman’s makes sensible eating delicious.”


A celebrity or authority appears in an ad to lend his or her stellar qualities to the product. Sometimes the people will actually claim to use the product, but very often they don’t. There are agencies surviving on providing products with testimonials.

Samples of Endorsements or Testimonials

“Joan Fontaine throws a shot-in-the-dark party and her friends learn a thing or two.”

“Darling, have you discovered Masterpiece? The most exciting men I know are smoking it.” (Eva Gabor)

“Vega is the best handling car in the U.S.” This claim was challenged by the FTC, but GM answered that the claim is only a direct quote from Road and Track magazine.


This kind of ad uses some sort of scientific proof or experiment, very specific numbers, or an impressive sounding mystery ingredient.

Samples of Scientific or Statistical Claims

“Wonder Break helps build strong bodies 12 ways.” Even the weasel “helps” did not prevent the FTC from demanding this ad be withdrawn. But note that the use of the number 12 makes the claim far more believable than if it were taken out.

“Easy-Off has 33% more cleaning power than another popular brand.” “Another popular brand” often translates as some other kind of oven cleaner sold somewhere. Also the claim does not say Easy-Off works 33% better.

“Special Morning–33% more nutrition.” Also an unfinished claim.

“Certs contains a sparkling drop of Retsyn.”

“ESSO with HTA.”

“Sinarest. Created by a research scientist who actually gets sinus headaches.”


This kind of claim butters up the consumer by some form of flattery.

Samples of the “Compliment the Consumer” Claim

“We think a cigar smoker is someone special.”

“If what you do is right for you, no matter what others do, then RC Cola is right for you.”

“You pride yourself on your good home cooking….”

“The lady has taste.”

“You’ve come a long way, baby.”


This technique demands a response from the audience. A question is asked and the viewer or listener is supposed to answer in such a way as to affirm the product’s goodness.

Samples of the Rhetorical Question

“Plymouth–isn’t that the kind of car America wants?”

“Shouldn’t your family be drinking Hawaiian Punch?”

“What do you want most from coffee? That’s what you get most from Hills.”

“Touch of Sweden: could your hands use a small miracle?”


Difference between Brochure and Leaflet

Key Difference: A Brochure is a short, printed document, also known as a pamphlet. It is a booklet containing descriptive or advertising material. A leaflet is a small printed sheet, containing information about certain materials.

Brochure and Leaflet are two terms, which provide certain information about the new product in the particular company. It also gives information about new hotels, shops, gadgets, etc. It is almost similar to each other.

According to, the definition of a Brochure is, a “publication consisting of one folded page, or several pages stitched together but not bound, used mainly for advertising purposes.”

Brochure originated in the early 1748. It is derived from a French word ‘brocher’ which means to sew, from Middle French. It means to prick; from Old French ‘brochier’.

A brochure is a small, thin book or magazine that usually has many pictures and information about a product, a place, etc. It is mostly of a single-sheet (bi-fold) or three sheets (tri-fold), which can be easily spread over different places. They may advertise new products, locations, shops, events, hotels, etc. It should be very attractive so that people at least have a glance over it. Nowadays, there are varieties of patterns and designs in brochures. They can be magazine style brochures, 3-folded brochures or postcard brochures.

On the other hand, leaflets are printed sheet with different sizes of papers. It can be either of A4, A5 or A6 size, where A6 is the smallest one. Leaflet is not that explanatory than brochure. Its font size is small, so that the brief information can be written in the appropriate form. The reason their size is small is so that they can be easily handed over to anybody.

Though its sizes are small, its main focus is to grab the reader’s attention. Leaflets texts are usually small and are expected to be clear. Leaflets should be the way that persuades readers to take action.

If one needs a professional leaflet or your leaflet needs to look ultra professional, consider using professional printers who may have a graphic designer to do the hard work. Leaflet also varies in shape, texture, quality, size and weight, according to the company’s demand.

A brochure consists of more than a page of information. It is usually folded or bound in ways to make it appear like a compact article. On the contrary, leaflet usually comes in a single page handout.

The differences are listed below in the table:-



Definition A small book that usually has many pictures and information about a product, a place, etc. A sheet of paper advertising something, usually a single sheet perhaps folded in two.
Size 4 to 8 panels Not more than 2 pages
Folded or Stapled Folded or stapled Folded
Information One paragraph to fully detail Points or in one sentence
Contains Descriptions of the company, a few highlighted products or about an event Description in points about the product or an event


Writing an advertisement

The basic dos and don’ts of advertising are fairly straightforward. You do not have to be clever or witty to be effective. Some people running small businesses create great ads.

This briefing explains:
• The elements that make up a good ad.
• The thinking process that leads to success.
• How to write advertising that works.

1. Outline of an ad

Start-up businesses tend to advertise in print – in newspapers, magazines or other publications. Successful print ads are usually written around a few basic elements.

1.1 The headline — a strong statement featuring the major selling point (e..cheaper, faster).
1.2 The illustration (optional) — reinforcing the claim in the headline (e.g showing how your product works).
1.3 The body copy — the main text which persuades the reader to buy your product.
1.4 The tag-line — summing up the product or the company’s philosophy (e.g. ‘Just do it.’)
1.5 The call to action — telling the reader what to do next.
1.6 The company details — name, address, phone number, email and web addresses and logo (if you have one).

Look at the advertising around you.
Decide what sort of ad would work best for your business and what would make the ad stand out.

2. What are you selling?

2.1 Be clear about what you have to offer.
The major selling points of most good small businesses are:

• Specialist or expert.
• Convenient and local.
• Give excellent service.
• Offering value for money.
• Reliable and conscientious.

This is the sort of thing that will make customers want to buy your product — so this is what your ad should be telling them.

2.2 If you have something unique to offer (eg your shop stocks the widest range of scuba gear in the North of England), emphasize it. You will automatically stand out from the competition.

2.3 If your product has no clear advantage, you will need to work hard to present it in
a unique way.
• If you cannot do that, perhaps you should not spend money on advertising.

3. How big and how often?

3.1 The size and style of your ad should depend on the publication it is to appear in.
• For example, a new local shop might place a simple ad in the local paper to let people know the shop is opening.
It should be large enough to stand out, but no more, and it should tell the readers exactly what they need to know — what they are selling, their location, opening date and opening times.

3.2 The type of publication and the cost per ad will dictate how often your ad should run.
• An advert in a local paper might be repeated for several weeks.
• An expensive ad in a monthly magazine might not need so many repeats, especially as many readers tend to keep each issue.
Another major factor will be how often your product or service is purchased.

4 The headline

4.1 The headline is the first thing most readers look at, even before the picture. If it does not grab their attention, through arousing curiosity or making an offer, the ad will fail.

• Make the headline stand out. Use large, bold type.
• Say something of real interest to the reader.
• Make it easily understood.

4.2 Bad headlines are often:
• The company name — it may mean something to you, but will it really grab the reader’s attention?
• The irrelevant joke — which says nothing about the product, and therefore does not attract the right readers.
• The misleading headline — people may read on, but they will be irritated when they find out what you are really offering.

5 The illustration

5.1 Use a good picture to improve your ad. But it will only work if it is relevant — if it reinforces or expands upon the headline.
• If you have nothing to show, do not feel you must have a picture for the sake of it.

5.2 Bear in mind that a good photographer or illustrator can make the dullest items look interesting. Do not assume your product is too unphotogenic to warrant a picture.

5.3 One inexpensive option is using stock shots — library pictures (e.g. photos of fresh food) that can be used for a flat fee. Do not use a poor shot because it is cheap.
• The picture must be in black and white, unless you go for a full-color ad.

6 The body copy

The headline and picture have won the reader’s attention. Now you need some good copy.

6.1 Take the practical example of writing an ad for your ‘extra-sharp kitchen knives’.

• Start by enlarging on what is said in the headline. Just how sharp are these knives?
• Offer facts to support your claims. Why are they so unusually sharp?
• Explain other benefits — e.g. inexpensive.
• Warn readers that they will miss out if they do not buy the product — e.g. there is a special offer for a limited time only.
• Urge readers to find out more, or buy the product. Tell them how and where — e.g. ‘Phone for details’.
• Close with a pay-off line relating back to the benefit in the headline — e.g. ‘So sharp they’ll cut your time in the kitchen’.

6.2 It is essential to get the tone right.
• Readability — the ad should be clear, crisp and concise, and written in plain English.
• Sincerity — the ad must be confident, without seeming shrill.
The best ads appear uncomplicated, but use phrasing their target audiences can relate to.

6.3 Advertisements must be ‘legal, decent, honest and truthful’.
• You must be able to back up your claims.

7 Check your advertisement

7.1 You have written a few draft ads, asked people’s opinions, and selected one. Now check it by asking yourself five questions.
• Will the headline — and illustration, if there is one — stop readers in their tracks?
• Is the copy interesting? Does it tell the readers something they want to know?
• Does the advertisement, overall, make the reader an offer or a promise?
• Does it encourage the reader to act? Does it make it clear what to do next?
• Are the special benefits of your product given the emphasis they deserve?

7.2 If you can look at your advertisement with the eyes of a reader — one of your potential customers — and answer ‘Yes’ to all these questions, you have a good ad.

• If not, it may be worth paying a specialist to write it for you, rather than wasting money buying space for an ad that will not bring you in any business.
• Advertising agencies are good at matching the style and content of an ad to the prospective customers for your product.
• If you cannot afford an agency, shop around for a self-employed copywriter and work together to generate ideas for ads.

8 Preparing artwork

8.1 Choose clear typefaces (fonts).
• Use a font that will be easy to read and reflects the image you want to project.
• Use large or bold font to emphasize the important information such as your contact details.
• Avoid mixing too many fonts, using ornate fonts that are difficult to read or excessive use of reversed-out font (white on black).

8.2 Lay out the ad with plenty of white space.
• Avoid clutter and excessive text.

8.3 Produce final artwork.
• Check what format the artwork should be submitted in.
Do you also need to submit a hard copy?
• Provide any images or photographs and make sure they are clearly identified.

8.3 Check a proof copy of the ad before the publication goes to print.
If it is a color ad, make sure you check a color proof.
• Make absolutely sure that the wording, layout, typefaces and the contact details are correct. Once you have signed off the proof, any mistakes are wholly your responsibility.
• Ask yourself if the ad will stand out from the others in the publication, or on the same page or website?
Will it create the right impression? Does it convey the message or impression you want to get across?
• Check that the images are sharp.
• Do not sign the advert off until you are completely happy with it.

Don’t spoil your chances

A Beware of discounts.
• Words like ‘sale’ and ‘discount’ can make your business sound tacky.

B Simplify clutter.
• If you cram in too many words and pictures, readers find ads hard work.

C Avoid jargon and wordiness.
• Obscure words and long sentences put people off. Keep it simple and direct.

D Don’t be boring. No-one wants to plough through a pile of statistics and facts.
• Decide what is important, say it clearly and stop when you have whetted the reader’s appetite.





Do You Give Your Power Away?

Open your heart to goodness.


Louise L. Hay The act of forgiveness takes place in our own mind. It really has nothing to do with the other person.

WHEN WE BLAME another, we give our power away because we’re placing the responsibility for our feelings on someone else. People in our lives may behave in ways that trigger uncomfortable responses in us. However, they didn’t get into our minds and create the buttons that have been pushed. Taking responsibility for our own feelings and reactions is mastering our “ability to respond.” In other words, we learn to consciously choose rather than simply react.

We can’t talk about resentment without also talking about forgiveness. Forgiving someone doesn’t mean that we condone their behavior. The act of forgiveness takes place in our own mind. It really has nothing to do with the other person. The reality of true forgiveness lies in setting ourselves free from holding on to the pain. It’s simply an act of releasing ourselves from the negative energy.

Forgiveness does not mean allowing the painful behaviors or actions of another to continue in your life. Sometimes, forgiveness means letting go. You forgive them and release them. Taking a stand and setting healthy boundaries are often the most loving things you can do—not only for yourself, but for the other person as well.

I truly believe that there are no mistakes. When our hearts are closed and we feel resentment and anger and sadness, it’s hard to see anything good. Yet when our hearts are open, it’s as if so much of that negativity disappears and we’re able to release these old thoughts and reawaken to joy. For each of us, there’s always joy inside. And we need to know how very perfect we are as we are.

No matter how much chaos may be going on around us, no matter how many things may be going wrong or not the way we want them to, no matter what our bodies may be doing at the moment—we can love and accept ourselves. For the truth of us—the very truth of our being—is that we’re eternal. We have always been and we always will be. And that part of ourselves goes on forever. Rejoice that this is so. As we love and accept ourselves exactly as we are, it makes it easier to go through the so-called difficult times. We’re no longer fighting ourselves. We’re accepting. We’re becoming tender. We’re cherishing ourselves. We’re comforting ourselves and making it easier for ourselves.

See yourself standing in front of a mirror looking into your own eyes and saying, I love and accept you exactly as you are. And breathe. Just let yourself feel what you’re feeling. You don’t have to be perfect. You’re already perfect as you are: You are you. You’re exactly what you’ve chosen to be in this lifetime. Of all the bodies and all the personalities that were available, you chose to be who you are—to experience this world, this lifetime, through your body, through your personality. So love your choice, for it is part of your spiritual evolution.